The Koran

伊斯兰这个民族,对于非伊斯兰国家的人来说简直就是一团雾。伊斯兰在国际名声不好,因为太多恐怖袭击了,特别是对白人国家。我很希望自己能够客观看待和理解这个民族,但是我承认,主观上我挺怕怕的。近几年澳洲发生的恐怖袭击,虽然没有巴黎比利时那么大规模,但已经足够引起恐慌了。

伊斯兰信奉可兰经,究竟是不是每个穆斯林都阅读可兰经就不得而知了。像基督教徒也不是每个人都阅读圣经嘛。我没有任何宗教信仰,看过圣经,现在又看过可兰经(也看过佛经,但这里不作讨论),于是有些比较。

先有圣经,再有可兰经;先有基督教,后有伊斯兰教,这是不可置疑的客观事实。在圣经里,没有任何地方提到穆斯林或伊斯兰教,称非基督教徒为Pagan;而在可兰经里,称非穆斯unbeliever/idolator,其实就是特指基督教徒和犹太教徒。犹太教产生基督教,然后伊斯兰教借鉴了基督教。根是一样的,里面的故事基本就是圣经里的故事–创世纪、亚当产生和堕落、摩西出埃及、Joseph、处女玛丽生圣子等等,但是同根而生的果实却大不一样。这些教与教之间互相仇恨,你说我不是真正的信仰,我说你是偶像崇拜,几千年来,没个消停。

跟圣经不一样的是,可兰经里的语调和细节,还有对生活的“规章制度”。

1,上帝的语调。
圣经里,旧约里的上帝固然是严厉和易怒的,但是可兰经里的上帝更加暴躁。对于不信上帝的人类,旧约里的上帝加以各种惩罚,又是瘟疫,又是大火,又是洪水。但是这些联想到自然灾害,也不是不能理解这是上帝之怒,而且上帝降灾难给人类,总会留一条生路,例如多次警告(例如摩西展现神迹),不给你全军覆没(例如诺亚方舟),留有生机。但可兰经里的上帝有点互相矛盾,前言不搭后语,一时说上帝是仁慈的,只要有信,不分教派宗教(2:1 36),一时就呼吁信徒去以上帝之名去惩罚非信徒,火烧啊,打进地狱啊,洗劫啊。不由得让普通读者觉得,可兰经里的上帝很moody。这种前言不搭后语的,也就容易被信徒利用去行不义之举。例如可兰经说杀戮是不好的,但是非信/异教徒之罪更大。那么信徒杀了人,也可以说我替上帝惩罚非信之人/异教徒,所以我是正义的,我的罪会被赦免的.

2:1 91-93 fight for the sake of God those that fight against you”…slay them wherever you find them. Drive them out of the places from which they drove you. Idolatry is more grievous than bloodshed…Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God’s religion reigns supreme…;

2:2 17 …Idolatry is more grievous than bloodshed..

3:19 The only true faith in God’s sight is Islam.

14:47 Mighty is God, and capable of revenge.

17:16-17 When We resolve to raze a city, We first give warming to those of its people who live in comfort. If they persist in sin, judgement is irrevocably passed, and We destroy it utterly…We have prepared Hell for him, where he will burn despised and rejected.

对比新约里“有人打你右脸,你把左脸也给他”(If someone strikes you on one cheek, turn to him the other also),穆斯林的“人家打你,你一定要打人家”(2:1 93 If anyone attacks you, attack him as he attacked you),有鲜明对比。

“The Koran accuses the Jews of corrupting the Scriptures and the Christians of worshipping Jesus as the son of God, although He had expressly commanded them to worship none but Him. Having thus gone astray, they must be brought back to the right path, to the true religion preached by Abraham. This was Islam-absolute submission or resignation to the will of God….The most important duties of the Muslim are faith in God and His apostle, prayer, almsgiving,fasting(eg 2:1 83) and (if possible) pilgrimage to the Sacred House at Mecca, built by Abraham for the worship of the One God.” (Introduction, 1989)

2,关于妇女
在古代,妇女地位的确是比男性要底,而且奴隶(特别是女奴)很平常。圣经里也提到通奸、诱惑、妓女,但是对这些妇女的态度并不是非常严厉,甚至在新约,已经能够宽容妓女了。但在可兰经里,是明确写了男性地位高于女性,女性要服从男性。如果妇女通奸,可以将她打死,男性通奸,罚钱就可以了。也的确明示了作为一个好妇女,就要将自己遮掩起来。诸如此类的好多好多,就不一一列举了。反正作为穆斯林妇女,并不是一点人权都没有,但就肯定是要服从男性。National Geography 2016 Feb里的《The Changing Face of Saudi Women》里报道了近年来穆斯林妇女的自由度和选择性高了点,但是森严的性别差别依然存在。只要她们信奉可兰经,就必须尊奉可兰经里对女性的要求。伊斯兰教统治了人们生活的方方面面,规定了社会道德标准,所以社会变革甚为艰难啊。

2:2 23 Women are your fields: go,then into your fields whence you please.

2:2 28 Women shall with justice have rights similar to those exercised against them, although men have a status above women.

2:2 33 Mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years if the father wishes the sucking to be completed.

4: 14 If any of your women commit a lewd act, call in four witness from among yourselves against them; if they testify to their guilt confine them to their houses till death overtakes them or till God finds another way for them.

3,艺术性
抛开宗教来说,可兰经当然不是一无可取。圣经的陈述有点编年体的感觉,是一个事件接着另一个事件,基本按照时间推移而发展,所以读起来感觉有条理,印象比较深刻。基督教对人们的教育,特别是孩子,可以用故事形式去展示。可兰经是默罕默德复述上帝跟他说的话,在上帝对人类的训导中,夹杂着圣经故事的片段,说着说着就没有了,又是另一番训导,一直看下来,满脑子都是上帝啰啰嗦嗦的话,却对里面包含的例子和事件十分混乱。

可兰经的语言风格,却没有圣经那么绕口。不过我看的是英文版,不知道在翻译过程中有没有变味。姑且假设翻译展现了七成的原色吧,圣经的英语比较接近用古英语写成的诗歌,需要重复阅读理解,但读顺了,会朗朗上口。可兰经在英语翻译后,比较偏向散文形式,也不乏优美的片段和词句。

2:1 15 To God belongs the east and the west. Whichever way you turn there is the face of God. He is omnipresent and all knowing.

2:2 71 To be charitable in public is good, but to give alms to the poor in private is better and will atone for some of your sins.

2:2 72 It is not for you to guide them. God gives guidance to whom He will.

3:29 Whatever you hide what is in your hearts or reveal it, it is known to God. He knows all that the heavens and the earth contain; God has power over all things.

4,信仰与宗教
这个世界上的人基本可以划分为两种人,一种是信仰神(先不论是何种神),一种是不信神。信仰之所以存在,不是没有理由的。人如果意识到人类的有限性,会去倾向相信在人类之上有更神秘和强大的力量。去相信有更伟大的神,能够慰藉心灵,使到人类对自己的痛苦能够更加坦然忍受。但信仰渐成某种宗教,问题就出现了。因为宗教需要统一性和集体行动,不可避免有共同认可的教义产生。宗教要存在,就要维护自己的权威性,这跟世俗的政府原理一样。为了维护自己,就不得不去证明自己才是对的,别人是错的,这样才能保存自己的信众吧。但这种绝对化,是很容易让人走极端的,历史上天主教与新教的纷争和互相屠杀,十字军东征,以及现在穆斯林的恐怖主义,其实也就是源自“你我“之分的执着。

私以为(当然未必对),人要坚持自己的信仰,但不可以迷信宗教,也不要企图扭转和说服他人去接受自己信仰,这样世界就太平多了。不过,我觉得争来争去,都是人类徒劳的动作。我相信的确是有上帝的存在,但这个上帝不是任何教派的上帝;而人类何去何从,自有上天(或上帝)的安排。

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s